There are many useful books to learn about algorithms from a utilitarian point of view. I have listed a few in the references section.
Numerical recipes is a very comprehensive book that I used during my PhD. It covers almost all the algorithms you need for scientific computing.
L Ma (2018). 'Some Basic Ideas of Algorithms', Datumorphism, 03 April. Available at: https://datumorphism.leima.is/wiki/algorithms/algorithms-basics/.