# Learning Theory

Why is learning from data even possible? To discuss this problem, we need a framework for learning. …

Two of the key elements in a learning problem are: a set of hypothesis $\mathcal H$, and a set of …

Information Bottleneck In a [[induction-deduction framework]] Induction, Deduction, and …

Given a set $\mathcal S$, and a class (collection of sets) $\mathcal H$. For any subset of $\mathcal … Noise contrastive estimation (NCE) objective function is1$$\mathcal L = \mathbb E_{x, x^{+}, … Cross validation is a method to estimate the [[risk]] The Learning Problem The learning problem … The learning problem posed by Vapnik:1 Given a sample:$\{z_i\}$in the probability space$Z\$; …