Why is learning from data even possible? To discuss this problem, we need a framework for learning. …

Two of the key elements in a learning problem are: a set of hypothesis $\mathcal H$, and a set of …

Information Bottleneck In a [[induction-deduction framework]] Induction, Deduction, and Transduction …

Given a set $\mathcal S$, and a class (collection of sets) $\mathcal H$. For any subset of $\mathcal …

Noise contrastive estimation (NCE) objective function is1 $$ \mathcal L = \mathbb E_{x, x^{+}, …

Cross validation is a method to estimate the [[risk]] The Learning Problem The learning problem …

The learning problem posed by Vapnik:1 Given a sample: $\{z_i\}$ in the probability space $Z$; …